AskDefine | Define wintered

The Collaborative Dictionary

Winter \Win"ter\, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Wintered; p. pr. & vb. n. Wintering.] To pass the winter; to hibernate; as, to winter in Florida. [1913 Webster] Because the haven was not commodious to winter in, the more part advised to depart thence. --Acts xxvii.
[1913 Webster]

English

Verb

wintered
  1. past of winter
Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. Calculated meteorologically, it begins on the equinox and ends on the solstice. It is the season with the shortest days and the lowest average temperatures. It has colder weather and, especially in the higher latitudes or altitudes, snow and ice. The coldest average temperatures of the season are typically experienced in January in the Northern Hemisphere and in July in the Southern Hemisphere.

Aspects

Meteorology

Meteorological winter is the season having the shortest days and the lowest temperatures. Night-time predominates the winter season, and in some regions it has the highest rate of precipitation as well as prolonged dampness because of permanent snow cover or high precipitation rates coupled with low temperatures, precluding evaporation. Blizzards often develop and cause many transportation delays. A rare meteorological phenomenon encountered during winter is ice fog, which is composed of ice crystals suspended in the air and happening only at very low temperatures, below about −30 °C http://www.iti.gov.nt.ca/parks/education/a_e/arctic_weather.htm.
Accumulations of snow and ice are mostly associated with winter in the Northern Hemisphere, due to the large land masses there. In the Southern Hemisphere, the more maritime climate and the relative lack of land south of 40 degrees South makes the winters more mild, and thus snow and ice are less common in inhabited regions of the Southern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, snow occurs every year in elevated regions such as the Andes, the Great Dividing Range in Australia, and the mountains of New Zealand, and also occurs in the southerly Patagonia region of South America. Snow occurs year-round in Antarctica.

Period

It is often said that, astronomically, winter starts with the winter solstice and ends with the vernal equinox. In meteorology, it is by convention counted instead as the whole months of June, July and August in the Southern Hemisphere and December, January and February in the Northern Hemisphere. While in actuality, the most accurate start and end point is simply defined by when the first major wave of cold fronts and warm fronts hit a particular area, having no universally predetermined dates.
In Celtic nations such as Ireland using the Irish calendar, the winter solstice is traditionally considered as midwinter, with the winter season beginning November 1 on All Hallows or Samhain. Winter ends and spring begins on Imbolc or Candlemas, which is February 1 or February 2. This system of seasons is based on the length of days exclusively. The three-month period of the shortest days and weakest solar radiation occurs during November, December and January in the Northern Hemisphere and May-July in the Southern Hemisphere.
Also many mainland European countries tend to recognize Martinmas, St. Martin's day (November 11) as the first calendar day of winter. The day falls at midpoint between the old Julian equinox and solstice dates. Also, Valentines Day (February 14) is recognized by some countries as heralding the first rites of Spring (season), such as flower blooming.
In Chinese astronomy (and other East Asian calendars), winter is taken to commence on or around November 7, with the Jiéqì known as (立冬 lì dōng, literally "establishment of winter".)
The three-month period associated with the coldest average temperatures typically begins somewhere in late November or early December in the Northern Hemisphere. If "winter" is defined as the statistically coldest quarter of the year, then the astronomical definition is too late by almost all local climate standards, and the traditional English/Irish definition of November 1 (May 1 in the Southern Hemisphere) is usually too early to fit this standard. No matter the reckoning, winter is the only season that spans two calendar years in the northern hemisphere. (In other words, there are very few temperate climates in which the vernal equinox is on average colder than the winter solstice, and very few temperate climates in which Samhain is colder than Imbolc).

Causes

seealso Effect of sun angle on climate The tilt of the Earth's axis relative to its orbital plane has a dramatic effect on the weather. The Earth is tilted at an angle of 23.44° to the plane of its orbit, and this causes different latitudes on the Earth to directly face the Sun as the Earth moves through its orbit. It is this variation that primarily brings about the seasons. When it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere faces the Sun more directly and thus experiences warmer temperatures than the Northern Hemisphere. Conversely, winter in the Southern Hemisphere occurs when the Northern hemisphere is tilted more toward the Sun. From the perspective of an observer on the Earth, the winter Sun has a lower maximum altitude in the sky than the summer Sun.
During winter in either hemisphere, the lower altitude of the Sun in winter causes the sunlight to hit that hemisphere at an oblique angle. In regions experiencing winter, the same amount of solar radiation is spread out over a larger area. This effect is compounded by the larger distance that the light must travel through the atmosphere, allowing the atmosphere to dissipate more heat.

Exceptional cases

Ecology

To survive the harshness of winter, many animals have developed different behavioral and morphological adaptations for Overwintering:
  • Migration is a common effect of winter upon animals, notably birds. However the majority of birds do not migrate, the cardinal or European Robin for example. Some butterflies also migrate seasonally.
  • Hibernation is a state of reduced metabolic activity during the winter. Some animals "sleep" during winter and only come out as warm weather returns. For example, gophers, bears, frogs, snakes and bats hibernate.
  • Some animals store food for the winter and live upon it instead of hibernating completely. This is the case of squirrels, beavers, skunks, badgers and raccoons.
  • Resistance is observed when an animal endures winter but changes in ways such as color and musculature. The color of the fur or plumage are changed to white in order to be confused with snow and thus, to retain their cryptic coloration year round. Examples are the ptarmigan, the arctic fox, the weasel, the white-tailed jack rabbit or the mountain hare.
  • Some fur-coated mammals grow a heavier fur coat during the winter. This improves the heat-retention qualities of the fur. The coat is then shed following the winter season to allow better cooling. The heavier winter coat made this season a favorite for trappers who sought more profitable skins.
  • Snow also affects the ways animals behave; many take advantage of the insulating properties of snow by burrowing in it. Mice and voles typically live under the snow layer.
Annual plants never survive the winter. As for perennial plants, many small ones profit from the insulating effects of snow by being buried in it. Larger plants, particularly deciduous trees, usually let their upper part go dormant, but their roots are still protected by the snow layer. Few plants bloom in the winter, with exceptions including the flowering plum (which flowers in time for Chinese New Year).

Activities

Snow activities

Many winter activities involve the use of snow in some form (which sometimes may still be manmade, via snow cannons):
  • Bobsledding - a winter sport in which teams make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked purpose-built iced tracks in a gravity-powered, steerable sled.
  • Skiing - the activity of gliding over snow using fiberglass planks called skis that are strapped to the skiers' feet with ski bindings.
  • Sledding - a downhill activity using a sled to glide downhill.
  • Snowball fight - a physical game in which snowballs are thrown with the intention of hitting someone else.
  • Snowboarding - an increasingly common sport where participants strap a composite board to their feet and slide down a snow-covered mountain.
  • Snowshoeing - a means of travel on top of the snow by increasing the surface area of the feet.
  • Snowman building - creating a man-like model out of snow.
  • Snow castle building - for example constructions such as the SnowCastle of Kemi, the largest in the world.

Ice activities

Many other winter activities and sports focus on ice, which may be contained in an ice rink.
  • Ice skating - a means of traveling on ice with skates, narrow (and sometimes parabolic) blade-like devices molded into special boots.
  • Ice boating - a means of travel in a specialized boat similar in appearance to a sailboat but fitted with skis or runners (skates) and designed to run over ice instead of (liquid) water.
  • Ice biking - The continuation of regular cycling activities in the winter and cold weather.
  • Ice fishing - the sport of catching fish with lines and hooks through an opening in the ice on a frozen body of water.
  • Ice diving - a type of penetration diving where the dive takes place under ice.
  • Ice sculpture - elaborate sculptures are carved out of blocks of ice.
  • Ice Hockey - A team sport played on the ice with skates, sticks and a puck. The goal is to send the puck in the adversary team's net.
  • Curling - A team sport using brooms and stones. The object of the game is to slide your stones in a bullseye and get your opponent's stones out of it.
  • Ice climbing - The recreational activity of climbing ice formations such as icefalls and frozen waterfalls.

Gallery

See also

References

Further reading

  • Rosenthal, Norman E. (1998). Winter Blues. New York: The Guilford Press. ISBN 1-57230-395-6

External links

wintered in Arabic: شتاء
wintered in Asturian: Iviernu
wintered in Aymara: Autipacha
wintered in Belarusian: Зіма
wintered in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Зіма
wintered in Bosnian: Zima
wintered in Bulgarian: Зима
wintered in Catalan: Hivern
wintered in Czech: Zima
wintered in Welsh: Gaeaf
wintered in Danish: Vinter
wintered in German: Winter
wintered in Estonian: Talv
wintered in Modern Greek (1453-): Χειμώνας
wintered in Erzya: Теле
wintered in Spanish: Invierno
wintered in Esperanto: Vintro
wintered in Basque: Negu
wintered in Persian: زمستان
wintered in French: Hiver
wintered in Friulian: Unvier
wintered in Galician: Inverno
wintered in Classical Chinese: 冬
wintered in Korean: 겨울
wintered in Hindi: शीत ऋतु
wintered in Croatian: Zima
wintered in Indonesian: Musim dingin
wintered in Icelandic: Vetur
wintered in Italian: Inverno
wintered in Hebrew: חורף
wintered in Georgian: ზამთარი
wintered in Haitian: Livè
wintered in Kurdish: Zivistan
wintered in Latin: Hiems
wintered in Latvian: Ziema
wintered in Luxembourgish: Wanter
wintered in Lithuanian: Žiema
wintered in Hungarian: Tél
wintered in Marathi: हिवाळा
wintered in Malay (macrolanguage): Musim sejuk
wintered in Dutch: Winter
wintered in Dutch Low Saxon: Wienter
wintered in Japanese: 冬
wintered in Norwegian: Vinter
wintered in Norwegian Nynorsk: Vinter
wintered in Narom: Hivé
wintered in Uzbek: Qish
wintered in Polish: Zima
wintered in Portuguese: Inverno
wintered in Romanian: Iarnă
wintered in Russian: Зима
wintered in Southern Sotho: Mariha
wintered in Albanian: Dimri
wintered in Sicilian: Mmirnata
wintered in Simple English: Winter
wintered in Slovak: Zima
wintered in Slovenian: Zima
wintered in Serbian: Зима
wintered in Serbo-Croatian: Zima
wintered in Finnish: Talvi
wintered in Swedish: Vinter
wintered in Thai: ฤดูหนาว
wintered in Vietnamese: Mùa đông
wintered in Tajik: Зимистон
wintered in Turkish: Kış
wintered in Ukrainian: Зима
wintered in Urdu: موسم سرما
wintered in Võro: Talv
wintered in Walloon: Ivier
wintered in Vlaams: Winter
wintered in Yiddish: ווינטער
wintered in Contenese: 冬天
wintered in Dimli: Zımıstan
wintered in Samogitian: Žėima
wintered in Chinese: 冬季
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